Tannins Extraction of Tea Leaves by Ultrasonic Method: Comparison with The Conventional Method

Herliati Rahman, Shafira Fildza Arini, Vredyta Utomo

Abstract


Tanin merupakan senyawa polifenol yang berasal dari tumbuhan yang terdapat pada daun teh (Camellia sinensis). Umumnya tanin dipisahkan dari daun teh menggunakan ekstraksi pelarut. Sayangnya metode tersebut memberikan hasil yang kurang memuaskan, sehingga perlu dilakukan cara lain untuk mengatasi hal tersebut yaitu dengan metode ekstraksi ultrasonik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh ultrasonik terhadap peningkatan yield tanin hasil ekstraksi. Parameter yang diamati pada penelitian ini diantaranya waktu ekstraksi dan jenis daun teh yang digunakan dari tiga daerah dengan ketinggian dari permukaan laut yang berbeda, yaitu Ciwidey Bandung, Pagar Alam, dan Puncak Bogor. Variasi waktu ekstraksi yang digunakan adalah 4, 6, dan 8 jam dimana frekuensi ultrasonik pada 75 kHz dengan pelarut ethanol 70%. Produk yang mengandung tanin dianalisis secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Kadar tanin secara kualitatif diuji menggunakan FeCl3 dan Gelatin sedangkan analisis kuantitatif menggunakan spektrofotometer UV-vis Shimadzu UV 1800. Selain itu, karakterisasi Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) memberikan validasi bahwa metode ultrasonik berpengaruh terhadap peningkatan rendemen tanin. Hasil tertinggi diperoleh pada teh jenis Pagar Alam dengan waktu ekstraksi 8 jam, yaitu 23,1% yield dimana lebih tinggi 3% dibandingkan dengan metode konvensional.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.31479/jtek.v1i8.62

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